Haku’un Yasutani (right)
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Sanbō Kyōdan was founded by Yasutani Haku’un in 1954. It is rooted in the thinking of Harada Daiun Sogaku, a Sōtō priest who also studied with Rinzai priests. Both Harada Roshi and Yasutani Roshi were strong promoters of Zen practice for lay practitioners, and for people of other (non-Buddhist, non-Asian) faith communities and cultures. Their openness to lay practitioners was in line with the modernizing tendency of the Meiji restoration, which began in 1868. Starting in this period, various Zen institutions began to give permission to lay followers to practice Zen.[note 1]
The leaders of the Sanbo Kyodan were involved in the contemporary social and cultural developments in Japan, which followed the abandonment of the mediaeval feudal system and its opening up to foreign influences and modern western technology and culture.
Westerners involved with Sanbō Kyōdan, including a number of Roman Catholics, promoted its teachings in North America and Europe in the latter half of the 20th century and early 21st century. One early American Zen member was Philip Kapleau, author of The Three Pillars of Zen. Kapleau studied under Harada Sōgaku in Obama and Yasutani Haku’un in greater Tokyo in the 1950s and 1960s, but never received formal dharma transmission, and started his own lineage. Other influential teachers who studied with Yasutani and started their own organizations included Robert Aitken and Taizan Maezumi. In Europe the Sanbō Kyōdan was associated particularly with Roman Catholic practitioners such as Hugo Enomiya-Lassalle and others.
Yasutani’s lineage has grown rapidly, constituting one of the largest Zen-networks in the USA, though several of Yasutani’s dharma heirs, or of his successor Yamada Koun, have left the Sanbo Kyodan and started their own organisations.
The Sanbō Kyōdan was also influential in introducing charismatic authority in western Zen, by its dependency on the authority of Yasutani, while simultaneously standing outside the mainstream of Japanese Zen. It was implemented into a culture which is unaware of the specific characteristics of Japanese culture regarding authority. The stress on kensho as means of authority, coupled to the primacy of maintaining the correct Dharma transmission, led to institutional problems when Yasutani’s heir Yamada Koun died. Seeing one’s nature gives an autonomous confirmation of Zen’s ultimate truth, which may conflict with the need to maintain institutions and traditions.[note 2]
- Another example of this openness to lay practitioners is the Ningen Zen Kyodan.
- See Sharf (1995-C)  for an exposition of the problems that the Sanbo Kyodan faced, after the death of Yamada Koun. As Sharf notes:
- “[C]harisma can spread too widely, and the resulting centripetal forces pull the organisation apart, with new sects spinning off in several directions”.
- “[T]he Sanbō Kyōdan would not survive long were it to elevate every student with kenshoto the status of master”.
- “The institution would have little chance of survival were it not to balance claims concerning the ultimacy and autonomy of kensho with a course of training that inspires obedience and loyalty to the tradition”.
These remarks also seem to apply to USA-zen, which lacks central authority, despite the formal ties to Soto-shu of many groups.
- Ford 2006, p. 148.
- Victoria 2006.
- Shimano 1996, p. 20-21.
- Victoria 2003, p. 96-97.
- mcMahan 2008.
- Sharf 1993.
- Lachs 2009.
- Laughing Cloud, Zen Master (2013). Taking The Buddha’s Teaching. Amazon Digital Services, Inc.
- Ford 2006.
- Sharf 1995-C.
- Lachs 1999.
- Lachs 2006.
- Sharf 1995-C, p. 444-452.
- Sharf 1995-C, p. 445.
- Ford, James Ishmael (2006). Zen Master Who?: A Guide to the People and Stories of Zen. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-509-8.
- Lachs, Stuart (1999), Means of Authorization: Establishing Hierarchy in Ch’an /Zen Buddhism in America* Lachs, Stuart (2006), The Zen Master in America: Dressing the Donkey with Bells and Scarves
- K., Vladimir; Lachs, Stuart (2009), The Aitken-Shimano Letters
- McMahan, David L. (2008), The Making of Buddhist Modernism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195183276
- Prebish, Charles S. (1999). Luminous Passage: The Practice and Study of Buddhism in America. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520216976.
- Seager, Richard Hughes (2000). Buddhism in America. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-10868-0.
- Sharf, Robert H. (1993), “The Zen of Japanese Nationalism”, History of Religions, Vol. 33, No. 1. (Aug., 1993), pp. 1-43.
- Sharf, Robert H. (1995-C), “Sanbokyodan. Zen and the Way of the New Religions”, Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 1995 22/3-4 Check date values in:
- Shimano, Eido Tai (1996), “Dai Bosatsu Mandala. A Portrait of Soen Nakagawa”. In: Kazuaki Tanahashi & Roko Sherry Chayat (1996), “Endless Vow. The Zen Path of Soen Nakagawa”, Boston, Massachusetts: Shambhala Publications, Inc.
- Spuler, Michelle (2002). Developments in Australian Buddhism: Facets of the Diamond. Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-1582-7.
- Victoria, Brian (2003), Zen War Stories, Routledge
- Victoria, Brian Daizen (2006), Zen at war (Second Edition ed.), Lanham e.a.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
- Philip Kapleau, The Tree Pillars of Zen
- Peter Matthissen, Nine-headed Dragon River
- Brian Daizen Victoria (2006), Zen at war. Lanham e.a.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. (Second Edition)
- jian 見 “see, observe, meet with, perceive”;
- xing 性 “(inborn) nature, character, personality, disposition, property, quality,gender”.
Buddhist monks who produced Sanskrit-Chinese translations of sutras faced many linguistic difficulties:
- They chose Chinese jian 見 to translate Sanskrit dṛś दृश् “see, look”, and the central Buddhist idea of dṛṣṭi दृष्टि “view, seeing (also with the mind’s eye), wisdom, false view”.
- Translators used xing 性 or zixing 自性 “self-nature” for Sanskrit svabhāva स्वभाव “intrinsic nature, essential nature”.
Thus, jianxing was the translation for dṛṣṭi-svabhāva, “view one’s essential nature”.
- kenshō 見性 or ケンショウ (on’yomi) in Sino-Japanese vocabulary,
- kyŏnsŏng (McCune-Reischauer) 견성 in Sino-Korean vocabulary,
- kiến tính in Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary.
Meanings of kenshō
Translating kenshō into English is semantically complex.
Encyclopedic and dictionary definitions
Some encyclopedia and dictionary definitions are:
- Soothill (1934): “To behold the Buddha-nature within oneself, a common saying of the Chan (Zen) or Intuitive School.”
- Fischer-Schreiber (1991): Lit. “seeing nature”; Zen expression for the experience of awakening (enlightenment). Since the meaning is “seeing one’s own true nature,” kenshō is usually translated “self-realization.” Like all words that try to reduce the conceptually ungraspable experience of enlightenment to a concept, this one is also not entirely accurate and is even misleading, since the experience contains no duality of “seer” and “seen” because there is no “nature of self’ as an object that is seen by a subject separate from it.
- Baroni (2002): “Seeing one’s nature,” that is, realizing one’s own original Buddha Nature. Kenshō is a Japanese term commonly used for an enlightenment experience; in many cases, it is used synonymously with satori. In the Rinzai school, it most often refers more specifically to one’s initial enlightenment experience attained though kôan practice.
- Muller (year unknown): To see one’s own originally enlightened mind. To behold the Buddha-nature within oneself, a common saying of the Chan school, as seen for example, in the phrase ‘seeing one’s nature, becoming Buddha’ 見性成佛.
Definitions by Buddhist scholars
Buddhist scholars have defined kenshō as:
- D.T. Suzuki: “Looking into one’s nature or the opening of satori”; “This acquiring of a new point of view in our dealings with life and the world is popularly called by Japanese Zen students ‘satori’ (wu in Chinese). It is really another name for Enlightenment (Annuttara-samyak-sambodhi)”.[note 4]
- Dumoulin (1988/2005): “Enlightenment is described here as an insight into the identity of one’s own nature with all of reality in an eternal now, as a vision that removes all distinctions. This enlightenment is the center and the goal of the Zen way. Hakuin prefers the term “seeing into one’s nature”, which for him means ultimate reality. The Buddha nature and the cosmic Buddha body, wisdom (prajna), and emptiness (sunyata), the original countenance one had before one was born, and other expressions from the rich palette of Mahayana terms were all familiair to him from his continued study of the sutras and Zen literature.”
- Peter Harvey (1990): “It is a blissful realization where a person’s inner nature, the originally pure mind, is directly known as an illuminating emptiness, a thusness which is dynamic and immanent in the world.”
- G. Victor Sogen Hori (2000): “The term consists of two characters: ken, which means “see” or “seeing”, and sho, which means “nature”, “character”, “quality.” To “see one’s nature” is the usual translation for kensho“.
Definitions by Buddhist teachers and practitioners
Buddhist teachers and practitioners have defined kenshō as:
- Jiyu-Kennett: “To see into one’s own nature. The experience of enlightenment, satori.”
- Myodo Ni Satomi, a student of Hakuun Yasutani (1993): “Seeing the-self, that is, the true self or Buddha nature.”
Kenshō is not a single experience, but refers to a whole series of realizations from a beginner’s shallow glimpse of the nature of mind, up to a vision of emptiness equivalent to the‘Path of Seeing’ or to Buddhahood itself. In all of these, the same ‘thing’ is known, but in different degrees of clarity and profundity.
“Kenshō” is commonly translated as enlightenment, a word that is also used to translate bodhi, prajna, satori and buddhahood. Western discourse tends to use these terms interchangeably, but there is a distinction between a first insight, and the further development toward Buddhahood.
Insight versus experience
Kensho is insight, an understanding of reality as-it-is. Contemporary understanding also describes kensho as an experience. The term “enlightenment experience” is itself a tautology: “Kensho is a kensho-experience”.
The notion of “experience” fits in a popular set of dichotomies: pure (unmediated) versus mediated, noncognitive versus cognitive, experiential versus intellectual, intuitive versus intellectual, nonrational versus rational, nondiscursive versus discursive, nonpropositional versus propositional.
The notion of pure experience (junsui kuiken) to interpret and understand kensho was introduced by Nishida Kitaro in his An Inquiry into the Good (1911), under influence of “his somewhat idiosyncratic reading of western philosophy”, especially William James, who wrote The Varieties of Religious Experience.[note 5] Wayne Proudfoot traces the roots of the notion of “religious experience” to the German theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834), who argued that religion is based on a feeling of the infinite. The notion of “religious experience” was used by Schleiermacher to defend religion against the growing scientific and secular citique. It was adopted by many scholars of religion, of which William James was the most influential.[note 6] D.T. Suzuki, who introduced Nishida Kitaro to western philosophy, took over this notion of pure experience, describing it as the essence of all religions,but best represented in the superior Japanese culture and religion.
The influence of western psychology and philosophy on Japanese Buddhism was due to the persecution of Buddhism at the beginning of the Meiji Restoration, and the subsequent efforts to construct a New Buddhism (shin bukkyo), adapted to the modern times. It was this New Buddhism which has shaped the understanding of Zen in the west,especially through the writings of D.T. Suzuki and the Sanbo Kyodan, an exponent of the Meiji-era opening of Zen-training for lay-followers.
The notion of “experience” has been criticised. Robert Sharf points out that “experience” is a typical western term, which has found its way into Asian religiosity via western influences.[note 7] The notion of “experience” introduces a false notion of duality between “experiencer” and “experienced”, where-as the essence of kensho is the realisation of the “non-duality” of observer and observed. “Pure experience” does not exist; all experience is mediated by intellectual and cognitive activity. The specific teachings and practices of a specific tradition may even determine what “experience” someone has, which means that this “experience” is not the proof of the teaching, but a result of the teaching.A pure consciousness without concepts, reached by “cleaning the doors of perception”[note 8], would be an overwhelming chaos of sensory input without coherence. The notion of “experience” also over-emphasises kensho, as if it were the single goal of Zen-training, where-as the Zen-tradition clearly states that “the stink of Zen” has to be removed and the “experience” of kensho has to be integrated into daily life. In the Rinzai-school this post-satori training includes the study and mastering of great amounts of classical Chinese poetry, which is far from “universal” and culture-transcending. On the contrary, it demands an education in culture-specific language and behaviour, which is measured by specific and strict cultural norms. Emphasising “experience” “reduces the sophisticated dialectic of Ch’an/Zen doctrine and praxis to a mere “means” or set of techniques intended to inculcate such experiences”.
The classical Zen-texts, such as the Kao-seng-chuan (Biographies of Eminent Monks) and the transmission lists, called “Transmission of the Lamp”[note 9] the yü-lü genre (the recorded sayings of the masters, such as the Linji yü lü); and the various koan-collections,[note 10] contain accounts of “enlightenment experiences”. These accounts are not verbatim recordings of such “experiences”, but well-edited texts, written down decennia or even decades after the supposed sayings and meetings.
The Denkōroku, “The Record of the Transmission of the Light”, written by Keizan Jōkin 瑩山紹瑾 (1268–1325), is an example of the “Transmission of the Lamp”-genre. It contains literary accounts of the patriarchs of the Soto-lineage, from Shakyamuni Buddha to Koun Ejō, in which kensho plays a central role. They are not to be taken as literal accounts of awakening, but as stories underpinning the legitimicay of the Dogen-shu, which in its early history had seen a fierce internal conflict over the correct lineage during the Sandai sōron.[note 11]
The Denkoroku gives the following account of Dogen’s awakening:
Once, during late-night zazen, Rujing told the monks, “Studying Zen is the dropping off of body and mind.” Hearing this, the master was suddenly greatly awakened. He went at once to the Abbott’s room and burned incense. Rujing asked him, “Why are you burning incense?” The master answered, “Body and mind have dropped off.” Rujing said, “Body and mind have dropped off, the dropped-off body and mind.” The master said, “This is a temporarily ability; you must not approve me without reason.” Rujing replied, “I am not approving you without reason.” The master asked, “Why are you not approving me without reason?” Rujing said, “You dropped off body and mind.” The master bowed. Rujing said, “You have dropped off dropping off.”
Although the Zen tradition is reluctant to speak openly about the ‘experience’ of kensho, personal accounts can be found in Zen-texts.
At around midnight on the seventh and final night of my practice, the boom of a bell from a distant temple reached my ears: suddenly, my my body and mind dropped completely away. I rose clear of even the finest dust. Overwhelmed with joy, I hollowed out at the tops of my lungs, “Old Yen-t’ou is alive and well! […] After that, however, I became extremely proud and arrogant”.
Hakuin’s kensho was not approved by Shoju Rojin, who subjected Hakuin to more koan-training. This resulted in a second kensho, where-after Hakuin left Shoju Rojin. It was only when he was 41 that he attained “his final great enlightenment”:
[W]hen Shoju had asked his reason for becoming a monk, his reply – that he had done it because he was afraid of falling into hell – had brought the scornful retort: “You’re a self-centered rascal, aren’t you!” Not until eighteen years later, upon attainment of his final great enlightenment at the age of forty-one, would Hakuin fully grasp the significance of Shoju’s reproach and with it the true meaning of “post-satori” practice. Years later, when Hakuin asked his student Torei the same question, Torei’s answer – “To work for the salvation of my fellow beings” – brought a laugh from Hakuin. “A much better reason than mine”, he said.
Keido Fukushima, a 20th-century Rinzai abbott, gives the following description:
At Nanzenji there is a small hill. I used to walk near there, look at it, and often smile at the high school students who walked by there as well. One day as I walked by, I looked at the hill and it was truly amazing. i was totally lost as if there was no ‘me’. I stood gazing at the hill. Some students walked by and one of them said something like ‘look at that crazy monk’. Finally I came out of it. Life was never the same for me. I was free.[note 12]
Other accounts can be found throughout the Zen-literature.[note 13]
Kenshō may be attained without the aid of a teacher. For example Richard Clarke (1933), who studied with Philip Kapleau, states that he had a spontaneous kensho when he was 13.[web 2] Dennis Genpo Merzel states he had what he described as an “awakening experience” in 1971:[web 3]
It was in February of that year, and I was 26 years old. My second serious relationship was ending, and I was feeling very confined and conflicted. I needed to get some space, so I went out to the Mojave desert for a three-day camping weekend with two friends. On the Friday, I hiked up a mountain alone. I knew nothing about meditation or spiritual practice. I was just sitting there, thinking about my life and the things going on. I felt I had gotten pretty screwed up for such a young age.
I could see my VW camper, my home for the weekend, parked a few miles away, . But at the same time, I was aware that my home was back in Long Beach, California. And a natural koan came to me: Where is home? All of a sudden, I had a kind of breakthrough. I felt myself fall away, and I became one with the cosmos, one with the universe, one with all things. I knew in that moment that wherever I am, that is home; home is everywhere. I also knew who I was, beyond description, but let’s call it Big Mind.
That experience completely changed my life.[web 3]
Training towards kenshōSee also: Zen practice
According to Harris, working towards kensho is usually a lengthy process stretched out over years or even decades. Contrary to this, Victor Hori notes that with koan-study kensho may appear within six months. [note 15]
During intensive zazen various hallucinations and psychological disturbances may arise. These are referred to as makyo. Distinguishing these delusions from actual kensho is the primary function of the teacher, as the student may be erroneously convinced they have realized kensho.
In the Rinzai school, kensho is seen as indispensable:
At some point in time we pass from imprisonment in ignorance and delusion to a true vision of Zen realization: “Our enlightenment is timeless, yet our realization of it occurs in time.” According to this belief experiencing a moment of awakening in this life is of central importance.
In the Rinzai-training, the student is expected to pour oneself totally in both koan-study and daily activities ‘to become one’ with it. Kenshō is used to describe the first breakthrough in kōan study.[note 16]
In the Sōtō school there are two kinds of awakening. One is the practice of shikantaza, which is the “actual enlightened activity of the Buddha”. The other is the accumulation of little bits of understanding, which come together, giving way to a deeper intuitive knowledge.
The “genjo-koan“, or the “koan of everyday life” which “appears naturally in daily life”, is emphasized. Students are not encouraged to actively seek out kenshō experiences. In Sōtō practice kenshōs “are allowed to occur naturally, as a by-product of practice. Meditative training is seen as the unfolding of one great kenshō:
According to the tradition of Soto Zen, although working on a koan is one way of attaining kensho, the best way is zazen. Indeed, Dogen, the founder of Soto Zen, expounded that zazen itself is enlightenment, and as long as the adept maintains a pure state of non-thinking in Zen, he is a Buddha.
Kenshō also plays a central in the Sanbō Kyōdan, a Japanese Zen-organisation which played a decisive role in the transmission of Zen to the United States. Yasutani, the founder of the Sanbo Kyodan, was disappointed about the lack of interest in kensho in the Soto-school. Yasutani’s emphasis on koan-training and the importance of kensho was transmitted to his American students:
He was especially vocal concerning the point of kenshō, seeing one’s true nature. He spoke more openly about it then anyone of his times, going so far as to have a public acknowledgement of those who had experienced kensho in a post-sesshin ceremony of bowing in gratitude to the three treasures.
Training after kenshō
Ch’an expressions refer to enlightenment as “seeing your self-nature”. But even this is not enough. After seeing your self-nature, you need to deepen your experience even further and bring it into maturation. You should have enlightenment experience again and again and support them with continuous practice. Even though Ch’an says that at the time of enlightenment, your outlook is the same as of the Buddha, you are not yet a full Buddha.
And the contemporary western Rev. Master Jiyu-Kennett:
One can easily get the impression that realization, kenshō, an experience of enlightenment, or however you wish to phrase it, is the end of Zen training. It is not. It is, rather, a new beginning, an entrance into a more mature phase of Buddhist training. To take it as an ending, and to “dine out” on such an experience without doing the training that will deepen and extend it, is one of the greatest tragedies of which I know. There must be continuous development, otherwise you will be as a wooden statue sitting upon a plinth to be dusted, and the life of Buddha will not increase.
To deepen the initial insight of kensho, shikantaza and kōan-study are necessary. This trajectory of initial insight followed by a gradual deepening and ripening is expressed by Linji Yixuan in his Three mysterious Gates, the Four Ways of Knowing of Hakuin, and the Ten Ox-Herding Pictures which detail the steps on the Path.
[I]t means a return to the purely secular life, a complete submersion in work and in the changing events of the world. Thus, for decades, many Zenists, after their awakening, went among the people, living among beggars and leading an existence of hard physical labor. Thus it was proved whether or not the truth received was of permanent value, or whether it would vanish among mundane affairs.
During the T’ang-era, the term became associated with the ideal of the recluse who leaves the world. An ideal period of “twenty years” was taken for it, echoing a story from theLotus Sutra about a prodigal son who wandered in poverty for twenty years before returning home. References to these twenty years are found throughout the Chán-tradition, for example Linji, who is reported to have studied under Huang-po for twenty years, and Daito, the founder of Daitoku-ji, who famoulsy spent twenty years living under a bridge with beggars.
According to Hakuin, the main aim of “post-satori practice” (gogo no shugyo or kojo, “going beyond”) is to cultivate the “Mind of Enlightenment”, “benefiting others by giving them the gift of the Dharma teaching”.[note 18] According to Yamada Koun, “if you cannot weep with a person who is crying, there is no kensho”. And according to Barry
Post-satori practice for Hakuin meant finally ceasing to be preoccupied with his own personal condition and attainment and to devote himself and his practice to helping and teaching others. Finally, at long last, he realized that true enlightenment is a matter of endless practice and compassionate functioning, not something that occurs once and for all in one great moment on the cushion.[web 4][note 19]
Kensho does not eradicate our unhealthy habits […] There is a sudden awakening to the fact of “no-self” and then this insight has to be integrated into one’s life which means that it has to be embodied and not just be a memory.[web 5]
And “experience” has to be supplemented by intellectual understanding and study of the Buddhist teachings; otherwise one remains a zen temma, a “Zen devil”.Finally, these efforts are to result in a natural, effortless, down-to-earth state of being, the “ultimate liberation”, “knowing without any kind of defilement”.
Sudden insightMain article: Subitism
Kenshō is described as appearing suddenly, upon an interaction with someone else, at hearing or reading some significant phrase, or at the perceiving of an unexpected sound or sight. The idea of “sudden insight” has been hotly debated in the history of Zen. It became part of the Traditional Zen Narrative in the 8th century.
Chinul, a 12th-century Korean Seon master, emphasized that insight into our true nature is sudden, but is to be followed by practice to ripen the insight and attain full Buddhahood. The contemporary Korean Seon master Seongcheol opposed this, emphasizing “sudden enlightenment, sudden cultivation”. But Jiyu-Kennett, a contemporary western teacher, warns that attaining kenshō does not mean that a person is free from morality, the laws of karma, or the consequences of ones actions. This warning is reflected in the Wild fox koan.
Mushi-dokugo and mushi-dokkakuMain article: Mushi-dokugo
Though the literal meaning is self-awakened, or awakened on one’s own, the emphasis in Zen, when using these terms, lies in the ultimate reliance on one’s own insight, instead of the authority of a teacher:
It is awakening that is one’s true master. With Shakyamuni, the awakening was his master. In other words, the awakened self is one’s master. Apart from getting awakened to that master, there is no awakening. Here practitioner and master are of one body, not two. Instead of having another verify or confirm one’s awakening, one does so for oneself. Of course in this case the self that is verified and the master who does verification are undivided. In their being completely identical is the autonomous, independent, or ultimate nature of the authenticity.[web 7]
Similarities with other traditions
The Theravada tradition, which is best known in the west through the modern Vipassana movement, discerns four stages of enlightenment, in which Nirvana is being reached in four succeeding sudden steps of insight.
The Dzogchen-traditions states that the ultimate nature of all sentient beings is pure, all-encompassing, primordial awareness, or naturally occurring timeless awareness. This intrinsic awareness has no form of its own, and yet is capable of perceiving, experiencing, reflecting, or expressing all form. It does so without being affected by those forms in any ultimate, permanent way.
The analogy given by Dzogchen masters is that one’s nature is like a mirror which reflects with complete openness, but is not affected by the reflections. Rigpa is the knowledge that ensues from recognizing this mirror-like clarity, which cannot be found by searching nor identified. One knows that there is a primordial freedom from grasping his or her mind.
In Advaita Vedanta moksha is attained by jnana, insight-knowledge. In Shankara’s philosophical synthesis insight samadhi is used as a subsidiary to this goal. Swami Vivekanandaemphasized the experience of nirvikalpa samadhi as a means to validate religious, transcendental knowledge.
- Low, Albert (2006), Hakuin on Kensho. The Four Ways of Knowing, Boston & London: Shambhala
- Hori, Victor Sogen (2006), The Steps of Koan Practice. In: John Daido Loori,Thomas Yuho Kirchner (eds), Sitting With Koans: Essential Writings on Zen Koan Introspection, Wisdom Publications
- Mumon, Yamada (2004), Lectures On The Ten Oxherding Pictures, University of Hawaii Press
- Dogen (year unknown), Rules for Meditation (Fukanzazengi) Check date values in:
- Dogen (2000), Enlightenment Unfolds. The Essential Teachings of Zen Master Dogen, Shambhala Publications Inc
- Maezumi, Hakuyu Taizan; Glassman, Bernie (2007), The Hazy Moon of Enlightenment: Part of the On Zen Practice Series, Wisdom Publications
- Sharf, Robert H. (1995-B), “Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Experience”, NUMEN, vol. 42 (1995) Check date values in:
- Stuart Lachs, Coming Down from the Zen Clouds: A Critique of the Current State of American Zen An attempt at demythologizing Zen-practice, emphasizing the integration into daily life